Information Resources for Harm Reduction

2022 Report to Congress on the State Opioid Response Grants (SOR)

Reports on the implementation, activities, and outcomes of state opioid response (SOR) grantees using data collected in fiscal years 2020, 2021, and 2022. Includes accomplishments for all the states and territories and rural mentions throughout.

Date: 09/2023
Sponsor: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
2024 National Drug Control Strategy

Outlines federal drug policy priorities and promotes short and long-term solutions to reduce drug use, overdose, supply, and other related harms in the U.S. Covers information and strategies to prevent youth substance use, expand access to medications for opioid use disorder and other evidence-based treatments, building recovery communities, and strengthening efforts to disrupt drug trafficking. Includes strategies to address substance use issues in rural, tribal, and other underserved communities.

Date: 05/2024
Sponsor: Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
Biden-Harris Administration's Statement of Drug Policy Priorities for Year One

Identifies and describes the following 7 drug policy priorities for the first year of the Biden-Harris Administration: expanding access to evidence-based treatment; advancing racial equity issues in drug policy; enhancing evidenced-based harm reduction efforts; supporting evidence-based prevention efforts to reduce youth substance use; reducing the supply of illicit substances; advancing recovery-ready workplaces and increasing the addiction workforce; and expanding access to recovery support services. Outlines next steps for the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) to coordinate with other federal agencies to address drug policy priorities.

Date: 03/2021
Sponsor: Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
Connecting Communities to Substance Use Services: Practical Approaches for First Responders

Provides information to first responder agencies, communities, and other stakeholders to support practices and approaches for first responders to connect people to substance use treatment and other support services. Offers evidence-based strategies, public health approaches, resources, and program models, including best practices for responding to opioid overdoses. Considers potential challenges, such as those faced in rural areas, and other factors when implementing initiatives to support people who use drugs.

Date: 08/2023
Sponsor: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Conversations with Rural Law Enforcement Leaders – Volume 2

Summarizes key focus areas, needs, and recommendations of underrepresented rural and tribal law enforcement leaders in 9 states that were the result of a series of listening sessions with federal agencies. Includes topics such as substance use and addiction; mental health and medical care; illegal drug trafficking and related crime; school safety; and funding, among others. Describes ongoing federal responses to rural law enforcement concerns and highlights several best practices and new ideas to support local efforts to enhance public safety and reduce crime in rural and tribal areas.

Date: 2021
Sponsors: Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office)
County-Level Drug Overdose Mortality in the United States, 2003-2021

Provides interactive data visualizations on drug poisoning mortality rates in the U.S. from 2003 through 2021. Shows national trends broken down by age, sex, and race and provides state and county-level data. Includes urban/rural trends by state for the estimated crude death rates for drug poisoning.

Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Cross-Sector Collaboration Between Law Enforcement, Courts, Child Welfare, and Schools to Address the Impact of Substance Use Disorders on Children and Families in the United States

Provides information to law enforcement, courts, child welfare agencies, and schools on how they can create cross-sector collaborations to reduce the harmful effects of substance use on children and families. Includes 8 strategies for cross-sector collaboration and provides examples of successful collaboration projects. Considers factors related to addressing substance use in rural communities.

Date: 08/2023
Sponsor: Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)
Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.

Provides an overview of a 10-year U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) initiative, starting in fiscal year 2020, to reduce new HIV infections in the U.S by 90% by 2030. Outlines the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) role in the initiative and strategies for working with national, state, and local partners in efforts to diagnose, treat, and prevent new HIV infections, and respond to potential HIV outbreaks. Includes information on funding for the initiative, priority jurisdictions, including 7 states with substantial rural burden, local plans focused on ending the HIV epidemic, success stories, and resources for partners and grantees.

Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Engaging Community Coalitions to Decrease Opioid Overdose Deaths Practice Guide 2023

Provides guidance and resources to help individuals and communities build and strengthen community coalitions with the ultimate goal of decreasing opioid overdose deaths. Includes insights from rural communities and rural considerations.

Date: 2023
Sponsors: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
IHS National Committee on Heroin Opioids and Pain Efforts (HOPE Committee)

Collaborates with tribal stakeholders across the U.S. to address issues related to the treatment of chronic pain and the use of heroin and prescription opioids among tribal populations. Works to promote appropriate and effective pain management, reduce opioid overdose deaths, and improve access to culturally appropriate substance use prevention, treatment, and recovery services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Workgroup focus areas include prescriber support, treatment and recovery, harm reduction, program effectiveness metrics, technical assistance, and communications.

Sponsor: Indian Health Service (IHS)
Law Enforcement Naloxone Toolkit

Serves as a clearinghouse of resources to assist law enforcement agencies across the country in establishing a naloxone program to reduce the harm and number of deaths associated with opioid overdose. Offers information on a range of topics related to operating a naloxone program, including naloxone medication and its role in law enforcement; acquiring and administering naloxone; training law enforcement; liability and risk issues; and collaboration with other agencies and stakeholders. Provides a variety of tools and materials, such as sample documents and templates for data collection forms, training materials, press releases, community outreach materials, and more. Product of the Bureau of Justice Assistance's (BJA) National Training and Technical Assistance Center (NTTAC) funded by a contract through the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Justice Programs (OJP).

Sponsor: Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)
Lessons Learned from the Rural Opioid Overdose Reversal Program

Documents the challenges, successes, and lessons learned from the Rural Opioid Overdose Reversal Program (ROOR), a 2015 pilot grant program administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Includes resources to support related projects and programs, with links to training, data strategies, and outreach tools.

Date: 04/2017
Sponsor: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP)
Local Response to Public Health Emergencies: Focus on the Opioid Epidemic

Provides an overview of a 2017 pilot project to enhance the ability of local health departments (LHDs) to address opioid use and overdose in their communities by working more effectively with state and local partners and reduce the occurrence of fatal and non-fatal overdose. Summarizes project activities and goals and a brief introduction to the four pilot sites: Bell County, Kentucky; Hillsborough County, New Hampshire; Montgomery County, Ohio; and Boone County, West Virginia.

Date: 2019
Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Medicaid Coverage of Medications to Reverse Opioid Overdose and Treat Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder

Provides information on the availability of, and access to, medications for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD), and for reversing opioid overdoses within state Medicaid plans. Discusses policies and regulations affecting access to these medications and reviews the present coverage and availability of the medications to Medicaid beneficiaries in each state. Includes 5 innovative models for expanding medication access to underserved Medicaid populations, including those residing in rural areas, American Indian/Alaska Native communities, and individuals recently released from incarceration.

Date: 01/2024
Sponsor: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Medicare Coverage of Services in Opioid Treatment Programs

Describes a benefit that covers opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment services under Medicare Part B medical insurance. Enables the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to make bundled payments to certified opioid treatment programs (OTPs) for OUD treatment services for an episode of care provided to Medicare Part B beneficiaries. Covers the following services under the benefit: opioid agonist and antagonist medication-assisted treatment (MAT) medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), naloxone and overdose education, substance use counseling, individual and group therapy, toxicology testing, intake activities, and periodic assessments.

Sponsor: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
Opioid Overdose Education & Naloxone Distribution (OEND)

Provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Opioid Overdose Education & Naloxone Distribution (OEND) program. Focuses on reducing opioid overdoses and deaths among veterans through education and training for prevention, recognition, rescue response, and naloxone kit use. Includes OEND videos and materials for providers and patients.

Sponsor: VA Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) Services
Opioid Overdose Prevention for State and Local Health Departments Microsite

Allows local organizations, providers, state and local health departments, and other stakeholders to add a free, customizable version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) opioid overdose website to their own websites. Helps communities disseminate online, current CDC opioid information and resources, as well as training on the CDC guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic pain.

Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Opioid Safety Initiative Toolkit

Toolkit sharing field guidance, resources, and presentations to support clinical decisions about starting, continuing, or tapering opioid therapy, and other challenges related to safe opioid prescribing. Includes patient and provider education, clinical tools, and other resources.

Sponsor: Veterans Health Administration (VHA)
Opioid Stewardship in the Indian Health Service (IHS)

Offers comprehensive information and resources on the use of prescription opioids, managing chronic pain, and opioid use disorder (OUD) for patients and providers, specifically for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities and Indian Health Service (IHS) providers. Includes online tools, technical assistance resources, guides, and training for patients and providers on topics such as opioid crisis data, opioid prevention, proper pain management, opioid prescribing/stewardship, culturally appropriate practices, maternal health, harm reduction, naloxone use, child health and wellness, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), tele-MAT, trauma-informed care, best practices, supportive services, wellness courts, and training opportunities. Resource is an initiative of the IHS Alcohol and Substance Abuse Branch (ASAB).

Sponsor: Indian Health Service (IHS)
Opioid-Overdose Reduction Continuum of Care Approach: A Guide for Policymakers for Implementing Evidence-Based Strategies That Address Opioid Overdose

Provides guidance to policymakers, communities, and key stakeholders to develop and implement system- and practice-level changes to reduce opioid overdose deaths. Presents results from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Helping to End Addiction Long-term (HEAL) Initiative's HEALing Communities Study. Outlines priority populations and 19 evidence-based interventions to prevent and reduce opioid related overdose deaths. Offers resources on various topics related opioid overdose and highlights model programs, including those serving rural areas.

Date: 2023
Sponsors: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Opioid-Overdose Reduction Continuum of Care Approach (ORCCA) Practice Guide 2023

Provides guidance and resources to help communities, healthcare providers, and volunteers providing opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and harm reduction and recovery services address opioid use in their communities. Include rural mentions throughout.

Date: 09/2023
Sponsors: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Overdose Prevention Strategy

Details the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services strategy to respond to drug overdoses and prevent overdose deaths across the U.S. Shares research, resources, and evidence-informed overdose interventions focused on 4 priority areas: primary prevention, harm reduction, evidence-based treatment, and recovery support. Offers strategies and resources designed to increase coordination among key stakeholders, reduce stigma, and expand access to healthcare and treatment for underserved populations, including rural and tribal communities.

Sponsor: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Overdose Response and Linkage to Care: A Roadmap for Health Departments

Shares information, resources, and tools organized around 7 strategies to help local and state health departments link people at risk of opioid overdose to care. Includes rural examples and discussion throughout.

Date: 11/2021
Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Overdose Response Strategy (ORS)

Consists of a public health and public safety collaboration between the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) across the U.S. Seeks to help communities reduce fatal and non-fatal drug overdose rates by improving information sharing across agencies and supporting evidence-based interventions. Equips states with a Drug Intelligence Officer (DIO) and a Public Health Analyst (PHA) who are responsible for helping to increase communication, data flow, and intelligence sharing between public safety and public health sectors within and across states.

Sponsors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
Preparing for Opioid-Related Emergencies for K-12 Schools and Institutions of Higher Education

Fact sheet detailing a 6-step planning process to help schools and institutions of higher education develop or update emergency operation plans (EOPs) to address potential threats and issues resulting from opioid misuse and abuse. Discusses the 5 mission areas of preparedness for opioid-related emergencies and the effects of the opioid crisis on school-aged children, young adults, and school safety. Includes links to additional resources and information to aid in the development of school EOPs, and programs and activities to address an opioid overdose.

Date: 11/2018
Sponsor: Office of Safe and Supportive Schools (OSSS)
Rural Response to the Opioid Crisis Topic Guide

Provides an overview of the opioid crisis in rural America and includes information and resources on initiatives and funding opportunities to address the crisis. Covers successful rural model program examples, events, and other tools for prevention, harm reduction, and treatment.

Sponsor: Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP)
SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Reversal Medications (OORM)

Describes how naloxone is used and the medication's side effects. Briefly discusses causes of opioid overdose. Highlights how the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is working with communities, local governments, local law enforcement, and state and federal partners to expand naloxone use.

Sponsor: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
SAMHSA Strategic Plan: Fiscal Year 2023-2026

Presents the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) 4-year strategic plan detailing the agency's guiding principles, priorities, goals, and objectives to address behavioral health needs in the U.S. Focuses on 5 key areas: preventing substance use and overdose; access to suicide prevention and mental health services; promoting resilience and emotional health for children, youth, and families; integrating behavioral and physical healthcare; and strengthening behavioral health workforce. Emphasizes behavioral health equity for underserved and/or historically marginalized populations, including rural and tribal communities.

Date: 08/2023
Sponsor: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Teens Linked to Care (TLC): Strategies to Prevent Substance Misuse

Details a school-centered pilot project that examined implementing strategies to prevent youth substance use and risky sexual behaviors in high-risk rural communities in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. Highlights efforts to address related issues of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), teen pregnancy, and high-risk substance use through education, primary prevention, and early detection screening. Program activities included implementing new health curricula, partnering with health departments and community drug-free coalitions, and developing and distributing informational products and video campaigns.

Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
TLC: Teens Linked to Care Toolkit

Serves as a planning resource for schools and stakeholders interested in implementing the Teens Linked to Care (TLC) program, an integrated prevention strategy to address both substance use and risky sexual behavior in youth living in rural communities. Outlines the 4 phases of the TLC program, and shares tools and other resources to help schools support sexual health and substance use education and policies.

Date: 03/2023
Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
VA PBM: Academic Detailing Services (ADS) - Educational Materials

Provides access to education materials developed by the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Services (PBM) Academic Detailing Services (ADS) sharing evidence-based treatments to help providers improve the health of veterans. Offers provider and patient education tools and outreach resources to encourage evidence-based decision making for a variety of medical conditions and diseases, including opioid use disorder (OUD) and substance use disorder (SUD), pain, suicide, dementia, depression, HIV, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more.

Sponsor: VA Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) Services
VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Substance Use Disorder (SUD)

Offers evidence-based information, recommendations, guides, and tools for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) healthcare providers and patients to assist in the decision making process to improve the treatment and outcomes for patients with substance use disorder (SUD), including opioid use disorder (OUD), methamphetamine use, and co-occurring mental health conditions. Describes best practices to help patients avoid preventable complications, reduce substance use, and improve their overall health and wellness.

Date: 2021
Sponsor: Veterans Health Administration (VHA)